29.11.08

De ahuyentar destinos, Silvio Rodríguez





Cita con Ángeles



Desde los tiempos más remotos
vuelan los ángeles guardianes.
Siempre celosos de sus votos
contra atropellos y desmanes.
Junto a las cunas infantiles,
junto a los tristes moribundos…
Cuentan que velan los gentiles
seres con alas de otro mundo.

Cuando este ángel surca el cielo
no hay nada que se le asemeje.
El fin de su apurado vuelo
es la sentencia de un hereje
—no se distraiga ni demore,
todo es ahora inoportuno—.
Va rumbo al campo de la flores
donde la hoguera espera a Bruno.

Se lanza un ángel de la altura
caída libre. Queda frío.
La orden de su jefatura
es descender hasta los ríos.
Es diecinueve y también mayo,
con té de espuma y madre sierra,
cuando otro ángel a caballo
cae con los pobres de la tierra.

Dicen que al filo de la una
un angelote compasivo
pasó delante de la Luna
sobrevolando los olivos.
Y cuentan que con mala maña
fue tiroteado su abanico
justo a la hora que en España
se asesinaba a Federico.

Un bello arcángel aletea
junto a un gran pájaro de hierro;
procura que un hombre lo vea
para ahuyentar cien mil destierros.
Pero el arcángel se sofoca
y un ala azul se le lastima…
y el ave negra abre la boca
cuando atraviesan Hiroshima.

Dejando un zurco luminoso
(por sobre Memphis, Tennessee)
pasó volando presuroso
un ser alado en frenesí.
Iba vistiéndose de luto
(iba llorando el querubín)
e iba contando los minutos
de Dios y Martin Luther King.

El ángel pasa bajo un puente,
después rodea un rascacielos
(Parque Central, lleno de gente.)
No se da cuenta de su vuelo:
¡cuanta utopía será rota!
¡Y cuanto de imaginación!
Cuando a la puerta del Dakota
las balas derriben a John.

Septiembre aúlla todavía:
su doble saldo escalofriante.
Todo sucede un mismo día
gracias a un odio semejante.
Y el mismo ángel que allá en Chile
vió bombardear al Presidente
ve las dos torres con sus miles
cayendo inolvidablemente.

Desesperados los querubes
toman los cielos de La Tierra
y con sus lápices de nubes
pintan adioses a las guerras.
El mundo llena los balcones
y exclama al fin —¡esta es mi lucha!—
Pero el señor de los cañones
no mira al cielo, ni lo escucha.

Pobres los ángeles urgentes
que nunca llegan a salvarnos
¿será que son incompetentes
o que no hay forma de ayudarnos?
Para evitarles más dolores
(y cuentas del psicoanalista)
seamos un tilín mejores
y mucho menos egoistas.

Seamos un tilín mejores
y mucho menos egoistas.



Appointment with angels

From the very remote times
the guardian angels have been flying.
Always conscious of their vows
against injustice and riots.
Beside children cradles,
beside sad dying people…
It is said that guard is kept by gentle
beings with wings from another world.

When this angel furrows the sky
there is nothing similar to him.
The end of his rushed flight
is the sentence of a heresy–believer
—do not distract or delay yourself
now everything is inopportune—
He is going towards the field of flowers
where the bonfire is waiting for Bruno.

From the height an angel dives
free fall. He becomes shocked.
The order of his headquarters
is to descend down to the rivers.
It is nineteen, and also May,
whit te de espuma and madre sierra,
when another angel, riding a horse,
falls with the poor of the Earth.

It is said that around one
a compassionate, big angel
crossed in front of the Moon,
flying over the olive trees.
And it is said that with bad sneaky tricks
his fan was shot over
just at the time that in Spain
Federico was being assassinated.

A beautiful archangel flutters
beside a big bird of steel
he attempts to be seen by a man
to drive away one hundred thousand exiles.
But the archangel is exhausted
and one of his blue wings is injured…
and the black bird opens its mouth

23.11.08

Max Ernst, eyes wide shut


Max Ernst:
Attirement of the Bride (La Toilette de la mariée), 1940
Oil on canvas, 129.6 x 96.3 cm

Stanley Kubrick:
Eyes wide shut.

Encuentre las diferencias.

22.11.08

Notre Dame, la Neige




Somos hombres, Señor, y lo viviente
ya no puede servirnos de semilla;
entre un mar y otro mar no existe orilla;
la misma voz con que te canto miente.

La culpa es culpa y oscurece el bien;
sólo queda la nieve blanca y fría,
y andar, andar, andar hasta que un día
lleguemos, sin saberlo, hasta Belén.

La nieve borra los caminos; ella
nos llevará hacia Ti que nunca duermes;
su luz alumbrará los pies inermes,
su resplandor nos servirá de estrella.

Llegaremos de noche, y el helor
de nuestra propia sangre Te daremos.
Éste es nuestro regalo: no tenemos
más que dolor, dolor, dolor, dolor.

Luis Rosales, poeta español, granadino.

21.11.08

Synecdoche NY, Continente, contenido


In Kaufman's film, instead of one block of flats, we have all of New York replicated in a warehouse in New York. This in turn is replicated within another, even bigger warehouse. This vast set-within-a-set explains the film's staggering $20m budget. Kaufman explains here that an exact replica of New York City would also have to occupy the same amount of space as New York City and there's a pleasingly direct echo here of the one-paragraph Borges tale in which a map is made of an empire "whose size was that of the Empire, and which coincided point for point with it."

This is also the tale with which Baudrillard begins his essay on simulacra. But a purely mental wrangling with simulacra et al is not nearly as pleasurable as experiencing that concept made visual (if not "real") in Kaufman's dizzying shots of city-within-city and warehouse-within-warehouse. His version has, in every sense of the word, greater scope.

From The Guardian, U.K.

books blog, The ultimate postmodern novel is a film

................................................................................................

Part dream, part puzzle, part brainteaser, the dazzling directorial debut from award-winning screenwriter Charlie Kaufman stars the inimitable Philip Seymour Hoffman as a theatre director who turns his every living moment into a play.

Hoffman plays Caden, whose problems include a failing marriage to Adele (Catherine Keener) and a career that is heading downhill fast. When Adele leaves him to pursue her own art career in Berlin, Caden throws himself into his new Broadway show. He creates a synecdoche of his life, in which a part stands for the whole. The film's narrative begins in Schenectady, New York, and the play between the two words is just one of countless ludic details that spring forth like sparks in this film.

As Caden attempts to fill his domestic void with dramatic recreations, he casts a lanky actor (Tom Noonan) as a near doppelgänger, a beautiful actress (Michelle Williams) as his wife and a quirky look-alike (Emily Watson) as his love interest, who in real life is an even quirkier box-office attendant named Hazel (Samantha Morton). As the players attempt to reproduce the goings-on in Caden's life at a 1:1 ratio, complications multiply. The real and the simulacrum start literally talking to one another, and Caden becomes both puppeteer and puppet on his own stage.

Hoffman is brilliant, embodying Caden's assorted neuroses and illnesses in heartbreaking detail. Kaufman, who has already demonstrated his genius for narrative play in the scripts for Being John Malkovich and Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, directs the story to more sober, ambitious territory here. There are ample moments of comic hysteria – Hazel's house is both poetically and literally on fire for much of the film – but ultimately this is a tale about all the big subjects: life, death, love and art. Though it begins with the clever conceit of art imitating life to an absurd degree, Synecdoche, New York rises to a symphonic level of philosophical reflection. This is the work of a major artist, and must be contended with as such.

Cameron Bailey


Charlie KaufmanCharlie Kaufman was born in New York City and studied film at New York University. He has written several award-winning screenplays, including Being John Malkovich (99), Human Nature (01), Adaptation (02), Confessions of a Dangerous Mind (02) and Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (04). Synecdoche, New York (08) is his directorial debut.

..................................................................................................................................

Libro para erotómanos




"Initiative inédite et superbe. Textes et images chantent l`amour dans tous ses états, depuis la galanterie courtoise jusqu`aux métaphores les plus résolument coquines, en passant par les feux de la passion. Ainsi les "allégories du mariage" côtoient les proverbes crus ou les vertus nobles. Avec la double constante de ce beau tourment puisque "L`Amour est Médecin et a la main meurtrière. Il blesse et puis guérit tout le mal qu`il a fait. "
Le Vif/L'Express
Belgium

11.11.08

Paradojas de la percepción, arte, ciencia


Books by academics reviewed by academics

Book of the week: Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective

6 November 2008

An exploration of the model world impresses Steven French

What does The Haywain represent? Or Mondrian's Broadway Boogie Woogie? How about Rothko's Red on Maroon? In the case of the Constable painting, the answer seems straightforward, and we can even visit the site of the scene he sketched (more or less). Mondrian, rejecting the distinction between abstract and representational art, himself suggested that his work represented structure. But with Rothko, talk of representation seems inappropriate.

What about scientific theories? Certainly they're not easily comparable to a Rothko, but are they more like The Haywain or Broadway Boogie Woogie? The notion of representation has recently risen to prominence in the philosophy of science, with arguments and examples imported from the world of art.

Bas van Fraassen has played a leading role in these discussions, grappling with representation and its mechanism from the perspective of the empiricist stance he first took in his now-classic text, The Scientific Image. Densely argued, erudite and rich in examples from both art and science, his latest book expands on his John Locke Lectures, given at Oxford in 2001, to cover not just representation, but also measurement and models, structuralism and, finally, the distinction between appearance and reality.

The "venerable" question that shapes the first section concerns the role of resemblance in representation, and van Fraassen emphasises that to be successful representation may also crucially require distortion, in art just as in science. This is not, of course, to suggest that resemblance is irrelevant, but the choice of those respects in which resemblance or distortion is required is crucial and dependent on the use to which the representation is put.

Here a fundamental pragmatic element enters: we do not just represent, we represent as, and it is use, making and taking that resolve possible ambiguities. Consider Francis Bacon's portrait of Pope Innocent X, after Velazquez. Is this simply a representation of Pope Innocent X, or of Velazquez's canvas? The answer depends on how the picture is taken, pragmatically. An art critic may take it to be a subtle revisiting of Velazquez, coloured by 20th-century sensibilities. I, as a naive gallery visitor, take it to be simply a portrait of Pope Innocent X. For van Fraassen, "there is no representation except in the sense that some things are used, made, or taken, to represent some things as thus or so".

As in art, so in science. Scientists, too, are intentional agents with goals and purposes, and scientific representations also involve resemblances and distortions, in various respects and to certain degrees. Take a scientific model: to be used for the purpose intended, it must of course be similar to the object modelled; but more than this, it must be pertinently similar. Learning to "read" and to construct theories and models involves determining which features are pertinent and which are not, just as learning to paint, sculpt, even photograph, does. Of course, scientific representations do differ from the artistic - they are constrained by the empirical and related to both their predecessors and successors in ways that their artistic counterparts are not.

Van Fraassen addresses the former constraint through his analysis of measurement as itself a form of representation, with measurement outcomes also bound up with selective resemblances. To achieve these outcomes requires, of course, an appropriately designed instrumental set-up, so the outcome represents some feature of the object in the context of that set-up.

However, instruments are not just passive windows on the world, but should be seen - contentiously, perhaps - as "engines of creation". Even the optical microscope, van Fraassen argues, is productive rather than mimetic. Thus he advocates what he calls the "Clausewitz doctrine" of experimentation as "the continuation of theory construction by other means".

Of course, the journey from the raw data to something that "fills in the blanks" of theory is a complex one, involving the construction of "data models" and their smoothed-out "surface model" counterparts that are then embedded in the models presented by scientific theories. Taking this journey results in a mutual "stabilisation" of experimental and theoretical practice, and it is this that supports the realist's inference that what our theories have latched on to and what they represent is the structure of the world.

Of course, van Fraassen has no truck with realism, and his "empiricist structuralism" offers instead a view "not of what nature is like but of what science is".

However, how can an abstract entity, such as a scientific theory, represent something non-abstract? Certainly, theoretical models can be "matched" with data models - or their surface counterparts - but what is the nature of the relationship between the latter and the phenomena they model? This is a representational matter, involving use and pragmatics. There is nothing in the data model itself, as another abstract structure, that determines that it is, or is not, a representation of, say, radioactive decay, just as there is nothing in a map that makes it a map of the world, rather than a theological document. It is the user who pays selective attention to the phenomena and decides which aspects to represent, in what ways and to what extent. Just as use of a map requires a "you are here" sign, so use of a scientific graph, say, requires an indexical judgment made within the context of use. It is this judgment that establishes the above relationship.

Adopting this approach then allows us "to follow the contemporary abstract structural forms now prevalent in the advanced sciences". In quantum physics, for example, the yawning gap between definite measurement outcomes and indefinite physical states - infamously known as the "measurement problem" - can be closed by paying proper attention to the relevant representational relationships. The theoretical structures are accountable to and predictive of the appearances only (measurement outcomes again) to the extent needed in empirical applications, and this they do unproblematically.

However, this means relinquishing the age-old demand that the world of appearance must be completely explained by the attributes posited by theory. The upshot is a radical change in "the very methodology of science itself and ... the conception of what science is to be".

In a sense, however, this is a conservative conclusion: we should not try to dress up theories with some kind of "deeper" interpretation that provides the complete explanation demanded by Einstein, for example, when it came to quantum physics. Alternatively, rather than drop a demand that has served science so well, perhaps we can still follow the contemporary abstract forms science presents to us and construct new kinds of interpretation from the resources provided by structural representations themselves.

It is customary to end reviews such as this by assuring the reader that there is much more to the book than is covered in the review, but in this case it really is true. Scientific Representation is both provocative and subtle, and will appeal to a general readership as well as the science studies aficionado. It takes us beyond the issue of representation in science to offer one of the most well thought-out representations of science currently available.

THE AUTHOR

Bas van Fraassen, professor of philosophy at San Francisco State University, has taught at the universities of Toronto and Southern California, Princeton and Yale.

He was born in the Netherlands in 1941, and his family emigrated to Canada in 1956. He studied at the University of Alberta before moving to the US to complete a masters at the University of Pittsburgh.

An adult convert to Roman Catholicism, van Fraassen's specialist subject is the philosophy of science. He has written books on quantum mechanics, the philosophy of logic and paradox. He is also a fiction writer.

He describes cats as "the most intelligent, graceful, and insightful beings in the Universe", but he doesn't own any. A passionate rock climber, he is now learning the trapeze. He says he very much enjoys "flying with the greatest of ease, etc", but adds that "not all of that applies in my case".

Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective

-

By Bas C. van Fraassen

Oxford University Press

320pp, £30.00

ISBN 9780199278220

Published 14 August 2008

Reviewer :

Steven French is professor of the philosophy of science and head of the department of philosophy, University of Leeds. He is author of Science: Key Concepts in Philosophy (2007) and editor-in-chief of the journal Metascience.

8.11.08

El viaje hacia el mar

Uruguayos, siempre en la orilla.

Vi la película en el coqueto Centro Cultural Bolivariano, un día de mucho frío, no hace mucho. Me re encontré con la luz del Uruguay, a través del film. Esperaba más de la fotografía, sin embargo. Las sierras minuanas merecen más. La música sonaba muy alta, y uniforme, o intentaba uniformizar el relato. Lo mejor fue la construcción de los personajes y la historia.
Más allá de los aspectos técnicos, el fresco hecho por Morosoli es agudo, incontrovertible. Me vi reflejada en la mentalidad pueblerina, el conformismo, el no animarse a intentar el cambio, el eterno quedarse en la orilla cuando se puede cruzar el océano, o al menos intentarlo.

D.B.

2.11.08

Filosofía para consumir



Metáforas líquidas
No es extraño que, en una época marcada por el consumismo donde el 99% de las culturas se basan en el consumo como mecanismo económico y la economía está configurada como motor de la historia, la filosofía se haya transformado en un objeto más. Se ponen "de moda", en esta "modernidad" donde ser "moderno" es una característica deseable y positiva, los filósofos , o ensayistas con pretensiones filosóficas, que explican de la manera más fácil de entender que sea posible, ya ni siquiera maniquea, este funcionamiento social supraeconomicista, si se me permite esa palabra. Sloterdijk usó la forma de la esfera como mecanismo metafórico y con bastante éxito. Bauman encontró un adjetivo felicísimo para la expansión de sus proposiciones: líquido. La característica acuosa, liviana e inasible, le ha servido para hablar de la modernidad, del estado actual de las relaciones amorosas y más. Ya no hay una profundidad digna de Heráclito o del Tao Te Ching en esa metáfora. Esa terminología es fácil, liviana como el agua. Muchos operadores culturales, sean periodistas, artistas, directores de museos, la consumen para sus desarrollos más o menos teóricos o justificaciones.
Sigue surgiendo cada tanto algún épateur de bourgeois, como un Onfray, y algún que otro escritor con pretensiones seudo nihilistas, y venden, cómo venden.
Sostengo atrevidamente, casi por intuición, que Hegel ya explicó TODO, que su trabajo fue la cumbre de la filosofía. Luego vinieron quienes lo entendieron mejor, Marx en cuanto al funcionamiento social por ejemplo, y quienes, la gran mayoría, no lo entendieron en absoluto. Quienes no lo entendieron, o entendieron pero quisieron manipular la filosofía, siguieron el rumbo de un pensamiento facilista, y en ese pantanal estamos. Habrá que esperar un próximo genio, un genio iluminado que devele todos los misterios?

La moda milenarista
Numerosos pensadores apocalípticos también trabajan, producen y venden con la idea de demostrar que estamos en una época de fin de todo lo conocido. Es el fin de la historia, con Fukuyama como proponente y muchos otros finalistas más. Hegel habló del fin del arte, pero no en el sentido que se entiende hoy para explicar la supuesta debacle del arte contemporáneo. Se actúa y se piensa como si la época actual fuera imprescindible y contundente, mesiánicamente encargada de explicar todo y darle un punto final a la historia. Tal vez sea una soberbia derivada de los rápidos, pasmosos avances tecnológicos. Hoy cuesta aceptar que seremos un parpadeo más en el devenir, apenas un resplandor lejano de una estrella ya extinguida, una capa más del sedimento. Las leyes de la física están a disposición hace ya un tiempo interesante, pero preferimos soslayarlas. Los filósofos actuales se han vuelto, en su mayoría, absolutamente funcionales al sistema, sea en contra o a favor del statu quo, eso no importa demasiado. Son funcionales, porque teniendo un enorme bagaje a su favor de siglos de pensamiento, utilizan esa sabiduría para explicar, en lugar de proponer. Y esas explicaciones, que llegarán a más gente que nunca en la historia de la humanidad, también se han vuelto más accesibles conceptualmente. No es que ésto último sea malo, pero resulta muy conveniente para el mercadeo. Es probable que con tanta agitación entre nihilista e inclusiva, sólo se esté preparando para el futuro una síntesis interesante.

Buscando culpables
Tal vez el principio del malententido fue hablar de vanguardias para etiquetar el arte, como si hubieran configurado la ruptura definitiva con el pasado. Se confundió la ética con la estética. Luego hubo que ser sucesivamente moderno, posmoderno, tardomoderno. En todo caso, necesitamos explicarnos. Como antes se recurría a los astrólogos, precisamos también hoy que nos digan cómo somos y qué nos puede pasar. Todo está dicho en las estrellas, pero no queremos verlo.
Se afanan en estudios sesudos la antroplogía social, la sicología social, la sociología general y de las organizaciones, pero el consumismo lleva el germen de la disconformidad. Entonces no existe porque no se deja existir a la posibilidad de la verdad casi absoluta, porque no obtendremos satisfacción, se demuestre lo que se demuestre, no es dable obtenerla según los parámetros actuales. Las fuerzas del mercado lucran con esa confusión entre ética y estética. El demonio del inconformismo, que pudo y puede ser el origen de los cambios sociales, busca atajos. Las religiones siguen siendo uno de ellos, pero más que en atajo, se convirtieron en una brecha divisoria inamovible de la humanidad. El mercado tampoco nos une, aunque tenga aspiraciones uniformizadoras, porque lleva el germen del individualismo inconformista.
El ágora ha sido desechada hace demasiado tiempo, aunque más no sea como ejercicio mental. Desapareció, de tal manera que no sería posible echar a los farsantes del ruedo, como Jesús hizo con los mercaderes en el templo. Tampoco es cierto que la poética haya sustituido a la retórica. No son comparables como para que opere esa propiedad. Casi nadie tiene tiempo ni interés en compartir, escuchar, debatir y proponer.
Tal vez la próxima síntesis sea muy dolorosa, más que nunca. Los ciclos, el tiempo, no se detienen por nada ni por nadie. Menos que menos por una expresión del deseo de vida eterna.
D.B.

Porqué "ésas" mujeres



Por este enlace se puede oír el engaño que hizo el programa "Vengador enmascarado", de la radio de Montréal Ckoi, a la candidata a vicepresidenta por el partido de gobierno del país vecino.
El grado de ignorancia de esta mujer, aterroriza.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JV_IphAIGPg

La Palin, es una ex !!!reina de belleza!!!, (qué antecedente meritorio como ser humano que se hace respetar en su condición femenina), y es una madre que está orgullosa de haber enviado a su hijo a la guerra.

Una prolija Hillary Clinton, con una larga historia de lucha por mejorar el acceso a la salud de sus conciudadanos, no llegó a candidata.
En ese país del revés debe ser muy difícil persistir en la lucha por un cambio social positivo. Quienes enfrentan esa tarea con honestidad, merecen mucha admiración.
Esta situación en U.S.A., en su incongruencia, sería comparable a que en Argentina se presentara un Tinelli a candidato político (ups!!), o que a éste lo dejaran dominar la cultura de medios en Uruguay.
Caramba, qué coincidencia!!

Pido el retorno al matriarcado en nuestra civilización, con la VERDADERA esencia matriarcal.
No engañando al electorado con monigotes espantosos del patriarcado.
D.B.


Se produjo un error en este gadget.